Biomass Biofuels And Biogas

In recent years there has been a lot of interest in renewable and alternative energy sources. This has seemingly become an even bigger issue in the wake of the Japanese nuclear crisis, where the nuclear plant at Fukushima was damaged by the earthquake and resultant tsunami on March 11th. There is now a real danger that harmful radiation could escape from the site. People have always been uncertain of the safety of utilising nuclear power and such a scare only serves to heighten their concerns. That is why increasingly people are looking for alternatives. One such alternative is the use of biofuels.

What are Biofuels?

The term ‘biofuel’ refers to a broad range of fuels that are created from ‘biomass’ (see below). Biofuels are often used as an additive rather than as a ‘pure’ fuel. Bioethanol is an example of this. It is an alcohol created by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and whilst ethanol can be used as a fuel for cars in its purest form, it is normally added to petrol to improve the emissions from the vehicle and increase octane.

Ok, so what is Biomass?

Biomass is a renewable energy source. It refers specifically to biomaterials from living organisms and recently living organisms – examples of which are wood, waste and alcohol fuels. There are actually several different sources of biomass energy, so in addition to the three just mentioned, there are: garbage and landfill gases. There are a few different mechanisms by which biomass can be converted to energy:

Thermal Conversion

This involves the use of heat in order to convert biomass into an alternative chemical form. There are different forms of thermal conversion – two examples of which are torrefaction and pyrolysis.

Chemical Conversion

This is quite simply where a range of chemical processes are used in order to convert biomass to alternative forms.

Biochemical Conversion

This involves harnessing the power of naturally occurring biochemical conversion processes. Microorganisms are used to break down biomass – Anaerobic Digestion is an example of this.

Biogas

Biogas is a type of biofuel that is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials, including biomass. Biodegradable waste can, for example, be converted to methane – which is a renewable energy source.

So are Biofuels the answer?

It remains to be seen whether or not biofuels are a long term solution to the problems surrounding the energy industry. There are certainly discussions to be had about the impact that the production of biofuels has on carbon emissions and biodiversity, but these are certainly not the only issues.

The Dangers of Algal Bloom

Never take for granted the small signs of algae in your water system: algae multiply quickly that they can almost swathe the entire pond or lake and, worse, destroy the pond and its inhabitants.

These tiny plant-like organisms grow drastically in any water features, whether on fresh water or marine environment. The rapid increase of algae is popularly known as algae bloom. The existence of phytoplankton species can aggravate the growth of algae. Algae bloom can manifest anytime, particularly during summer or spring, and thrive in any places where water is copious such as wetlands and waterways.

Algae are part of the natural aquatic ecosystem. They provide food and protection to fish and other marine organisms. They help the aquatic ecosystem from getting enough nutrients and filtering heavy metals. There are approximately 3,000 species of fresh water algae found in Australia alone, but the number of undiscovered species is continuously rising.

Most types of algae produce blooms that can be either beneficial or toxic. Blooms produced from diatoms promote the health of the aquatic ecosystem. However, most algae blooms are considered “detrimental” to the life of fish and water. Harmful algal bloom or HAB is the term used by scientists when referring to toxic algae.

Algal bloom is a natural phenomenon that can be a culprit for the destruction of commercial fisheries and natural water systems. There are 300 reported species of micro algae that produce enormous mass of algal blooms. Certain species can turn clear water into red, brown, yellow, or green, commonly known as red tides. Red tide happens when there is unbalanced number of microscopic algae Karenia brevis or formerly known as Gymnodinium breve. Experts believe that red tide is triggered by high temperatures and insufficient wind and waterfall.

Harmful algae can be very harmful for they emit toxin that affect marine organisms and the water itself. Untreated and uncontrolled algal bloom can bring massive problems to commercial fisheries, resulting to economic loss in coastal communities. HABS can paralyze aquaculture operations and affect the livelihood of fish farmers,

Otherwise, harmful algae bring much problems to marine life and humans. Some toxic species are responsible for various diseases such as loss of memory, stomach cramping, sickness, paralysis, and worse, fatality. Once consumed or direct contact occurred, humans and animals may get serious diseases and may also lead to death

Scientists have not traced yet the exact causes and solutions for harmful algae bloom. The threats of algae bloom to commercial fisheries and public water systems have spurred panic among pond and fishery owners. The notorious algae bloom has been a global problem. There have been documented cases of HAB across the world. In recent years, HABS have been found in areas that they had not thrived before; while most HABS are causing turmoil to large, dense areas. Whilst, there are rare cases wherein algae bloom tend to behave, but they suddenly became untamed and caused problems.

When small signs of algae infestation arise, you must be equipped with tools and water treatment products to prevent algae from coming.

Radiology Supplies Determine Accuracy

Most people are well-aware of the genius that created radiology. In fact, one of the most common uses for radiology are ultrasounds. Patients who are pregnant are very familiar with this test and look forward to viewing the results as it gets closer to delivery. There are also ultrasounds to test for kidney disease and recently, it was well-publicized that former President Clinton had a radiology ultrasound on his arteries. After quickly detecting that his arteries were somewhat clogged, the medical professionals were able to quickly treat the president and send him home for recuperation. In a matter of hours, a minor surgical procedure was done without subjecting the patient to unnecessary trauma of performing exploratory surgery, which also avoided the risk of infection.

As you can see, the technology of radiology has become a standard in doctor’s offices, hospitals, veterinarian’s offices and sports clinics. Whether the patient has a hairline fracture, artery problems, pregnancy, or some other ailment that requires a closer look inside without exploratory surgery; radiology is used as a prominent medical tool. Having said this, most people overlook the basics of what makes radiology work so well. Cleanliness!

If you are a healthcare professional for people or animals, it is crucial to keep your equipment clean and working properly. That’s why it is important to purchase radiology supplies from a reputable dealer. What types of supplies are needed? X-Ray equipment cleaner, Ultrasound paper, Disinfectant, Lighting, Mailing and Marker sets, Towels, Wipes and various Veterinary products as well.

Why go to such lengths to clean this equipment? The answer is simple: Someone’s life may depend on it.

Stainless Steel Finishing Services by Poligrat

Today in modern world stainless steel produced in a variety of shapes, sizes, finishes and textures. Nowadays many types of Stainless steel have been developed to resist a number of corrosive environments. Stainless steel ensures that workplaces are safe and secure and you can do work with full peace of mind, all buildings last longer and food preparation surface is fully hygienic. Stainless steel is also an earth friendly material and it is used for in systems to clean up the exhaust gases. But stainless steel can only be achieved if proper cleaning and finishing operations like Electropolishing, Pickling & Passivation, Chemical Deburring, and Electrochemical Deburring are carried out. The functions of given techniques are explained below:

Electropolishing of Stainless Steel

Electropolishing of stainless steel is an electrochemical process which is used to remove material from surface of work piece to leaving a clear and smooth surface finish. Due to this process surface of the components is improved by treating with acid and applying suitable electrical current. Electropolishing is the opposite of electroplating process, and is carried out with similar equipment. Electropolishing process is used to produce a very striking and hygienic finish.

Passivation of Stainless Steel

The process of passivation of stainless steel describes the treating of steel with a mild oxidant to remove free iron from the surface of the steel. Passivation process is performed by submerging the steel in an oxidant, such as nitric acid or citric acid solution. The top layer of steel is removed, passivation reduces surface staining. As passivation does not affect the thickness of the passive layer, it is very helpful in producing a spotless surface for further treatment.

Pickling of Stainless Steel

Pickling of stainless steel is the most common pickling process that is an acid treatment to remove high temperature scale produced in welding and hot working. Pickling process also confiscates red rust from corrosion of the steel. Stainless steel pickling process depends upon size and shape pickle solution is applied to the metal surface of those components which are to be pickled. This process takes a few minutes up to a few hours at room temperature and then fully rinsed with water.

Chemical Deburring of Steel

Chemical Deburring is most cost effective and easy way of removing flash from injected molded parts such as holes, cross bores and recessed cavities and all those areas where normal access is impossible. It is very efficient process so we can easily use on variety of materials, including rubbers, plastics, silicones, and light metal die-castings. Almost any size and shape of component can be treated by Chemical Deburring.

Poligrat specializes in high quality electropolishing, passivation, metal pickling, Deburring, chemical cleaning, protective coatings and chemical polishing services. Poligrat is the part of Poligrat GmbH, the largest company in Europe so provide highest quality services at affordable price. Large and heavy parts in complex shapes or configurations are no problem for Poligrat.

Temperature Monitoring And Alarm System For Biorepositories

Accsense System Enables Compliance with Title 21-CFR part 11

CHESTERLAND OH-March 19, 2012

Medical storage repositories and biobanks constantly work to comply with increasingly demanding FDA regulations, especially Title 21-CFR part 11, in the storage of their temperature-sensitive life science products. Unfortunately, medical freezers often fluctuate in the mandated -40??C to -200??C range due to uneven cooling and prolonged door opening among other causes. CAS DataLoggers now offers biorepositories an ideal solution with the Accsense A2-05 Wired Ethernet Temperature Data Logger, an automated temperature monitoring and alarming system specifically designed to protect customers’ valuable life science materials. These LAN-wired temperature monitors are equipped with connections for external RTD and thermocouple sensors, using a standard Ethernet connection to the Internet to automatically send all data to secure servers. In addition to cloud-based data storage and reporting functionalities, the Accsense system also offers email, pager, and phone alert capabilities to form a complete and cost-effective monitoring system. Now customers can view and remotely access data in real-time, transmitting recorded temperature data online for easy storage and analysis, entirely eliminating all the worries over regulatory concerns raised by manual temperature checking.

These reliable data logging pods connect to medical refrigerators, freezers, and cryogenic tanks to provide high accuracy monitoring for every storage unit. Each A2-05 datalogger supports Power over Ethernet and has inputs for external sensors including 2 RTDs and a thermocouple, with available temperature RTD probe accessories measuring a -100??C to +100??C temperature range for ultra-low containers. Customers can also choose a Type T thermocouple cryogenic probe measuring from -200??C to +-100??C to monitor liquid nitrogen containers and tanks. An ambient temperature probe measuring 0??C-100??C is also available, and for additional flexibility, A2-05 data loggers can be mixed and matched with Accsense wireless monitors if other parameters need to be monitored. By connecting an RTD input to a switch monitoring freezer door opening and closing, sudden temperature fluctuations can be quickly identified and configurable alarms can be set to prevent loss of high-value goods.

The Accsense system’s advanced capabilities offers users online graphing, reporting, and configuration features enabling compliance with Title 21-CFR part 11 and legal liabilities by closely monitoring and recording sensitive goods in storage. All the system requires is an RJ45 Ethernet connection with open internet access to begin recording, without any need for troublesome installation. Accsense dataloggers automatically send all recorded data to Rackspace, the manufacturer’s completely secure cloud server, where it is immediately stored and available using a backed-up online Accsense Account. Customers’ accounts give instant access to charts showing all measurement history with ranges as narrow as 5 minutes or as wide as 90 days, and also offer a customizable interface with a dashboard showing the most recent measurements from all sensor pods. Measurement data can also be downloaded for offline analysis, and multiple monitors can be viewed in a single account.

Accsense installations are simplicity itself, offering turn-key operation and entirely eliminating the need for IT professionals or costly training programs. Since all the data instantly goes out to the Web, Accsense is the only system on the market that has virtually NO impact on the existing infrastructure, including server structure, IT overhead, and only a minimal impact on bandwidth. Staff times are significantly decreased by gaining real-time access to the current temperature data. Also, unlike many integrated systems on the market forming control issues, Accsense systems offer users peace of mind and secure operation.

Each wired temperature monitor includes a power adapter and Ethernet cables for a lower cost and easier maintenance compared to traditional wiring, increasing life science safety measures. In the event of a loss of the network connection, they will store up to 256 data points or until the connection is restored.

Market Research And Survey

For business growth, two-way communication is a must. Communication plays an essential role in understanding the customer feedback and requirements. It’s high time that organizations realized that one-way communication is not successful. One has to develop innovative methods to know one’s customer and his feedback.

Survey research is the research methodology that companies have come up to study market trends, customer behavior, social behavior and certain patterns in a niche. Although the method is not new, new ways of research have been introduced. Not only market research but private and public companies are exploring this method to know different behavior pattern in a community, opinion of people regarding a product or even a political issue, health surveys, population surveys etc.

It is not easy to reach mass in one go. It takes long to conduct research and collect stats and then compile it. Conducting surveys can be challenging and time-consuming. Nowadays there are many consultants/companies that can help do the market research or social surveys for you. As a final product, you get accurately done and well-compiled data.

These days, interactive survey is making a buzz in the market. You just name the thing and there is an online survey for it. Not only this, you can also create your personalized surveys on the websites. These interactive surveys have an interesting questionnaire that hooks the respondent and s/he gives honest replies to the questions asked. It can be about anything such as mobile phones, holidaying options, and brand preference in clothes or wrist watches etc. After all, who doesn’t like answering questions about themselves? That’s what explicitly measures customer likes, preferences, requirements, and feedback. Thus companies can now get an honest feedback about their products through these surveys. Though print surveys are still active, they reach limited mass. Whereas, interactive surveys are making it big in the web-world for there are many internet users world-wide.

However there comes a challenge with online surveys. It is very difficult to convince the respondent online. So one must know how and what content should be presented to the respondent. Once the respondent shows interest, your questionnaire now plays an extremely vital role. All questions should be relevant and follow the same logic.

Many surveys are conducted by media (print or electronic) to scale people beliefs and hence social research. Every now and then, there is polling on various debatable issues on news channels on TV or online. The participation of people in these interactive surveys shows that it is a successful tool to elicit people opinion on various issues. Be it market research or social research, asking a person/consumer/customer/citizen about his/her views is the best way out.

Forgotten Bioenergy

Bring new energy, almost everyone will fix your attention on two major photovoltaic and wind power industries.

Thanks to “Solar Roofs Plan” and “Golden Sun Project” has introduced China’s photovoltaic industry surging, the output of photovoltaic cells only reached 2.26 million kilowatts, ranking first in the world. According to incomplete statistics, during the first half of this year, the National polysilicon production capacity more than 14 tons / year, while world demand is expected in 2010 less than 80,000 tons.

The same disease was also into the wind power industry. In 2008, China will increase installed capacity of 6.3 million kilowatts, so that China’s total installed capacity of 12 million kilowatts, achieved two years ahead of the National Development and Reform Commission’s 2010 development goals.

These red hot numbers, spell out a very stirring picture, but also laid the “excess capacity” of the seed … …

When looking for a breakthrough in new energy, bio-resources and energy sector did not attract enough attention.

Widespread in the human bio-energy, plants, animals and animal waste, organic waste and wastewater. As the world’s biological huge amount of energy it contains is also quite amazing. On the one hand, and solar energy, wind energy, like bio-resources are renewable, “inexhaustible.” Development of bio-renewable energy, relieve our energy crisis will play a significant role, and other new energy industry and form a good complementary pattern. On the other hand, the use of bio-energy process, not only will not damage the ecological environment, but also effective in improving the status of environmental pollution.

Experts point out that in cities, but also bears a large number can be converted into bio-energy and resource waste. According to authoritative estimates, one ton of manure can produce about 0.02 tons and 0.95 tons of solid organic fertilizer, liquid organic fertilizer, the equivalent of 24 kilograms of chemical fertilizer fertility, then the country’s 13 million people daily production of organic fertilizer can replace chemical fertilizer 11.388 million tons, about to 1.15 million mu of fertilizer. In the aspect of energy per cubic meter of biogas can power 2 kwh, then the amount of manure per day can be generating 26 million kwh, Energy Efficiency is very alarming. For densely populated cities, such a large scale transformation.

Unfortunately, there are statistics show that, with the acceleration of urbanization, urban organic waste surged, processing rate year after year “decline.” Data show that in 2004, the national waste removal was 71.52% after treatment, by 2007, this figure fell to 36.24%. Among these, immature technology and the people are the traditional concept of limit, was transformed into unspeakable waste recycling and other issues, are needed to solve the bottleneck problem.