Biomass Biofuels And Biogas

In recent years there has been a lot of interest in renewable and alternative energy sources. This has seemingly become an even bigger issue in the wake of the Japanese nuclear crisis, where the nuclear plant at Fukushima was damaged by the earthquake and resultant tsunami on March 11th. There is now a real danger that harmful radiation could escape from the site. People have always been uncertain of the safety of utilising nuclear power and such a scare only serves to heighten their concerns. That is why increasingly people are looking for alternatives. One such alternative is the use of biofuels.

What are Biofuels?

The term ‘biofuel’ refers to a broad range of fuels that are created from ‘biomass’ (see below). Biofuels are often used as an additive rather than as a ‘pure’ fuel. Bioethanol is an example of this. It is an alcohol created by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and whilst ethanol can be used as a fuel for cars in its purest form, it is normally added to petrol to improve the emissions from the vehicle and increase octane.

Ok, so what is Biomass?

Biomass is a renewable energy source. It refers specifically to biomaterials from living organisms and recently living organisms – examples of which are wood, waste and alcohol fuels. There are actually several different sources of biomass energy, so in addition to the three just mentioned, there are: garbage and landfill gases. There are a few different mechanisms by which biomass can be converted to energy:

Thermal Conversion

This involves the use of heat in order to convert biomass into an alternative chemical form. There are different forms of thermal conversion – two examples of which are torrefaction and pyrolysis.

Chemical Conversion

This is quite simply where a range of chemical processes are used in order to convert biomass to alternative forms.

Biochemical Conversion

This involves harnessing the power of naturally occurring biochemical conversion processes. Microorganisms are used to break down biomass – Anaerobic Digestion is an example of this.


Biogas is a type of biofuel that is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials, including biomass. Biodegradable waste can, for example, be converted to methane – which is a renewable energy source.

So are Biofuels the answer?

It remains to be seen whether or not biofuels are a long term solution to the problems surrounding the energy industry. There are certainly discussions to be had about the impact that the production of biofuels has on carbon emissions and biodiversity, but these are certainly not the only issues.

Stainless Steel Finishing Services by Poligrat

Today in modern world stainless steel produced in a variety of shapes, sizes, finishes and textures. Nowadays many types of Stainless steel have been developed to resist a number of corrosive environments. Stainless steel ensures that workplaces are safe and secure and you can do work with full peace of mind, all buildings last longer and food preparation surface is fully hygienic. Stainless steel is also an earth friendly material and it is used for in systems to clean up the exhaust gases. But stainless steel can only be achieved if proper cleaning and finishing operations like Electropolishing, Pickling & Passivation, Chemical Deburring, and Electrochemical Deburring are carried out. The functions of given techniques are explained below:

Electropolishing of Stainless Steel

Electropolishing of stainless steel is an electrochemical process which is used to remove material from surface of work piece to leaving a clear and smooth surface finish. Due to this process surface of the components is improved by treating with acid and applying suitable electrical current. Electropolishing is the opposite of electroplating process, and is carried out with similar equipment. Electropolishing process is used to produce a very striking and hygienic finish.

Passivation of Stainless Steel

The process of passivation of stainless steel describes the treating of steel with a mild oxidant to remove free iron from the surface of the steel. Passivation process is performed by submerging the steel in an oxidant, such as nitric acid or citric acid solution. The top layer of steel is removed, passivation reduces surface staining. As passivation does not affect the thickness of the passive layer, it is very helpful in producing a spotless surface for further treatment.

Pickling of Stainless Steel

Pickling of stainless steel is the most common pickling process that is an acid treatment to remove high temperature scale produced in welding and hot working. Pickling process also confiscates red rust from corrosion of the steel. Stainless steel pickling process depends upon size and shape pickle solution is applied to the metal surface of those components which are to be pickled. This process takes a few minutes up to a few hours at room temperature and then fully rinsed with water.

Chemical Deburring of Steel

Chemical Deburring is most cost effective and easy way of removing flash from injected molded parts such as holes, cross bores and recessed cavities and all those areas where normal access is impossible. It is very efficient process so we can easily use on variety of materials, including rubbers, plastics, silicones, and light metal die-castings. Almost any size and shape of component can be treated by Chemical Deburring.

Poligrat specializes in high quality electropolishing, passivation, metal pickling, Deburring, chemical cleaning, protective coatings and chemical polishing services. Poligrat is the part of Poligrat GmbH, the largest company in Europe so provide highest quality services at affordable price. Large and heavy parts in complex shapes or configurations are no problem for Poligrat.

Forgotten Bioenergy

Bring new energy, almost everyone will fix your attention on two major photovoltaic and wind power industries.

Thanks to “Solar Roofs Plan” and “Golden Sun Project” has introduced China’s photovoltaic industry surging, the output of photovoltaic cells only reached 2.26 million kilowatts, ranking first in the world. According to incomplete statistics, during the first half of this year, the National polysilicon production capacity more than 14 tons / year, while world demand is expected in 2010 less than 80,000 tons.

The same disease was also into the wind power industry. In 2008, China will increase installed capacity of 6.3 million kilowatts, so that China’s total installed capacity of 12 million kilowatts, achieved two years ahead of the National Development and Reform Commission’s 2010 development goals.

These red hot numbers, spell out a very stirring picture, but also laid the “excess capacity” of the seed … …

When looking for a breakthrough in new energy, bio-resources and energy sector did not attract enough attention.

Widespread in the human bio-energy, plants, animals and animal waste, organic waste and wastewater. As the world’s biological huge amount of energy it contains is also quite amazing. On the one hand, and solar energy, wind energy, like bio-resources are renewable, “inexhaustible.” Development of bio-renewable energy, relieve our energy crisis will play a significant role, and other new energy industry and form a good complementary pattern. On the other hand, the use of bio-energy process, not only will not damage the ecological environment, but also effective in improving the status of environmental pollution.

Experts point out that in cities, but also bears a large number can be converted into bio-energy and resource waste. According to authoritative estimates, one ton of manure can produce about 0.02 tons and 0.95 tons of solid organic fertilizer, liquid organic fertilizer, the equivalent of 24 kilograms of chemical fertilizer fertility, then the country’s 13 million people daily production of organic fertilizer can replace chemical fertilizer 11.388 million tons, about to 1.15 million mu of fertilizer. In the aspect of energy per cubic meter of biogas can power 2 kwh, then the amount of manure per day can be generating 26 million kwh, Energy Efficiency is very alarming. For densely populated cities, such a large scale transformation.

Unfortunately, there are statistics show that, with the acceleration of urbanization, urban organic waste surged, processing rate year after year “decline.” Data show that in 2004, the national waste removal was 71.52% after treatment, by 2007, this figure fell to 36.24%. Among these, immature technology and the people are the traditional concept of limit, was transformed into unspeakable waste recycling and other issues, are needed to solve the bottleneck problem.